Practice Tests

Abductive Reasoning Test

Abductive reasoning begins with an observation or a series of real observations (A1, A2, A3,...), of which a possible and probable cause (B) is known. Cause B will then serve as the basis on which to affirm that it is indeed the cause of A1, A2, A3, etc. in particular.


What Is the Abductive Reasoning?

Abductive reasoning (also called abduction, abductive inference, or retroduction) does not provide an implicitly true conclusion, but allows the presentation of a logical hypothesis, which can then be verified through extensive research.

Logically, this translates into the following sequence:

If A1, A2, A3, etc. are true.
And if B is true, it results in A1, A2 and A3 being true.
Therefore B is true.

Example

When it rains there are puddles in the street.
Martine sees puddles of water in the street.
She therefore infers that it rained.

This type of reasoning is generally used to develop hypotheses in different fields, that may in turn be true or false. In the example above, given the conditions and the rule, it is indeed very likely that the rain was the cause of the puddles of water. However, it is also possible that the puddles are the result of different, seemingly random factors, such as automatic sprinklers. This type of reasoning is probably the most difficult type of logical reasoning, due to the ambiguous nature of the statement’s conclusion. The best way to prepare for such an exam is by familiarizing yourself with the test as much as possible, so that you will be able to recognize the logical principles of the questions and problems presented.

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